Hy (the language)

Warning

This is incomplete; please consider contributing to the documentation effort.

Theory of Hy

Hy maintains, over everything else, 100% compatibility in both directions with Python itself. All Hy code follows a few simple rules. Memorize this, as it’s going to come in handy.

These rules help ensure that Hy code is idiomatic and interfaceable in both languages.

  • Symbols in earmuffs will be translated to the upper-cased version of that string. For example, foo will become FOO.
  • UTF-8 entities will be encoded using punycode and prefixed with hy_. For instance, will become hy_w7h, will become hy_g6h, and i♥u will become hy_iu_t0x.
  • Symbols that contain dashes will have them replaced with underscores. For example, render-template will become render_template. This means that symbols with dashes will shadow their underscore equivalents, and vice versa.

Notes on Syntax

numeric literals

In addition to regular numbers, standard notation from Python 3 for non-base 10 integers is used. 0x for Hex, 0o for Octal, 0b for Binary.

(print 0x80 0b11101 0o102 30)

Underscores and commas can appear anywhere in a numeric literal. They have no effect on the value of the literal, but they’re useful for visually separating digits.

(print 10,000,000,000 10_000_000_000)

string literals

Unlike Python, Hy allows only double-quoted strings. The single-quote character is reserved for preventing the evaluation of a form, as in most Lisps.

Whether running under Python 2 or Python 3, Hy treats string literals as sequences of Unicode characters by default, and allows you to prefix a literal with b to treat it as a sequence of bytes. So when running under Python 3, Hy translates "foo" and b"foo" to the identical Python code, but when running under Python 2, "foo" is translated to u"foo" and b"foo" is translated to "foo".

Built-Ins

Hy features a number of special forms that are used to help generate correct Python AST. The following are “special” forms, which may have behavior that’s slightly unexpected in some situations.

.

New in version 0.10.0.

. is used to perform attribute access on objects. It uses a small DSL to allow quick access to attributes and items in a nested data structure.

For instance,

(. foo bar baz [(+ 1 2)] frob)

Compiles down to:

foo.bar.baz[1 + 2].frob

. compiles its first argument (in the example, foo) as the object on which to do the attribute dereference. It uses bare symbols as attributes to access (in the example, bar, baz, frob), and compiles the contents of lists (in the example, [(+ 1 2)]) for indexation. Other arguments raise a compilation error.

Access to unknown attributes raises an AttributeError. Access to unknown keys raises an IndexError (on lists and tuples) or a KeyError (on dictionaries).

->

-> (or the threading macro) is used to avoid nesting of expressions. The threading macro inserts each expression into the next expression’s first argument place. The following code demonstrates this:

=> (defn output [a b] (print a b))
=> (-> (+ 4 6) (output 5))
10 5

->>

->> (or the threading tail macro) is similar to the threading macro, but instead of inserting each expression into the next expression’s first argument, it appends it as the last argument. The following code demonstrates this:

=> (defn output [a b] (print a b))
=> (->> (+ 4 6) (output 5))
5 10

apply

apply is used to apply an optional list of arguments and an optional dictionary of kwargs to a function. The symbol mangling transformations will be applied to all keys in the dictionary of kwargs, provided the dictionary and its keys are defined in-place.

Usage: (apply fn-name [args] [kwargs])

Examples:

(defn thunk []
  "hy there")

(apply thunk)
;=> "hy there"

(defn total-purchase [price amount &optional [fees 1.05] [vat 1.1]]
  (* price amount fees vat))

(apply total-purchase [10 15])
;=> 173.25

(apply total-purchase [10 15] {"vat" 1.05})
;=> 165.375

(apply total-purchase [] {"price" 10 "amount" 15 "vat" 1.05})
;=> 165.375

(apply total-purchase [] {:price 10 :amount 15 :vat 1.05})
;=> 165.375

and

and is used in logical expressions. It takes at least two parameters. If all parameters evaluate to True, the last parameter is returned. In any other case, the first false value will be returned. Example usage:

=> (and True False)
False

=> (and True True)
True

=> (and True 1)
1

=> (and True [] False True)
[]

Note

and short-circuits and stops evaluating parameters as soon as the first false is encountered.

=> (and False (print "hello"))
False

as->

New in version 0.12.0.

Expands to sequence of assignments to the provided name, starting with head. The previous result is thus available in the subsequent form. Returns the final result, and leaves the name bound to it in the local scope. This behaves much like the other threading macros, but requires you to specify the threading point per form via the name instead of always the first or last argument.

;; example how -> and as-> relate

=> (as-> 0 it
...      (inc it)
...      (inc it))
2

=> (-> 0 inc inc)
2

;; create data for our cuttlefish database

=> (setv data [{:name "hooded cuttlefish"
...             :classification {:subgenus "Acanthosepion"
...                              :species "Sepia prashadi"}
...             :discovered {:year 1936
...                          :name "Ronald Winckworth"}}
...            {:name "slender cuttlefish"
...             :classification {:subgenus "Doratosepion"
...                              :species "Sepia braggi"}
...             :discovered {:year 1907
...                          :name "Sir Joseph Cooke Verco"}}])

;; retrieve name of first entry
=> (as-> (first data) it
...      (:name it))
'hooded cuttlefish'

;; retrieve species of first entry
=> (as-> (first data) it
...      (:classification it)
...      (:species it))
'Sepia prashadi'

;; find out who discovered slender cuttlefish
=> (as-> (filter (fn [entry] (= (:name entry)
...                           "slender cuttlefish")) data) it
...      (first it)
...      (:discovered it)
...      (:name it))
'Sir Joseph Cooke Verco'

;; more convoluted example to load web page and retrieve data from it
=> (import [urllib.request [urlopen]])
=> (as-> (urlopen "http://docs.hylang.org/en/stable/") it
...      (.read it)
...      (.decode it "utf-8")
...      (drop (.index it "Welcome") it)
...      (take 30 it)
...      (list it)
...      (.join "" it))
'Welcome to Hy’s documentation!

Note

In these examples, the REPL will report a tuple (e.g. (‘Sepia prashadi’, ‘Sepia prashadi’)) as the result, but only a single value is actually returned.

assert

assert is used to verify conditions while the program is running. If the condition is not met, an AssertionError is raised. assert may take one or two parameters. The first parameter is the condition to check, and it should evaluate to either True or False. The second parameter, optional, is a label for the assert, and is the string that will be raised with the AssertionError. For example:

(assert (= variable expected-value))

(assert False)
; AssertionError

(assert (= 1 2) "one should equal two")
; AssertionError: one should equal two

assoc

assoc is used to associate a key with a value in a dictionary or to set an index of a list to a value. It takes at least three parameters: the data structure to be modified, a key or index, and a value. If more than three parameters are used, it will associate in pairs.

Examples of usage:

=>(do
... (setv collection {})
... (assoc collection "Dog" "Bark")
... (print collection))
{u'Dog': u'Bark'}

=>(do
... (setv collection {})
... (assoc collection "Dog" "Bark" "Cat" "Meow")
... (print collection))
{u'Cat': u'Meow', u'Dog': u'Bark'}

=>(do
... (setv collection [1 2 3 4])
... (assoc collection 2 None)
... (print collection))
[1, 2, None, 4]

Note

assoc modifies the datastructure in place and returns None.

break

break is used to break out from a loop. It terminates the loop immediately. The following example has an infinite while loop that is terminated as soon as the user enters k.

(while True (if (= "k" (raw-input "? "))
              (break)
              (print "Try again")))

cond

cond can be used to build nested if statements. The following example shows the relationship between the macro and its expansion:

(cond [condition-1 result-1]
      [condition-2 result-2])

(if condition-1 result-1
  (if condition-2 result-2))

As shown below, only the first matching result block is executed.

=> (defn check-value [value]
...  (cond [(< value 5) (print "value is smaller than 5")]
...        [(= value 5) (print "value is equal to 5")]
...        [(> value 5) (print "value is greater than 5")]
...        [True (print "value is something that it should not be")]))

=> (check-value 6)
value is greater than 5

continue

continue returns execution to the start of a loop. In the following example, (side-effect1) is called for each iteration. (side-effect2), however, is only called on every other value in the list.

;; assuming that (side-effect1) and (side-effect2) are functions and
;; collection is a list of numerical values

(for [x collection]
  (side-effect1 x)
  (if (% x 2)
    (continue))
  (side-effect2 x))

dict-comp

dict-comp is used to create dictionaries. It takes three or four parameters. The first two parameters are for controlling the return value (key-value pair) while the third is used to select items from a sequence. The fourth and optional parameter can be used to filter out some of the items in the sequence based on a conditional expression.

=> (dict-comp x (* x 2) [x (range 10)] (odd? x))
{1: 2, 3: 6, 9: 18, 5: 10, 7: 14}

do

do is used to evaluate each of its arguments and return the last one. Return values from every other than the last argument are discarded. It can be used in list-comp to perform more complex logic as shown in one of the following examples.

Some example usage:

=> (if True
...  (do (print "Side effects rock!")
...      (print "Yeah, really!")))
Side effects rock!
Yeah, really!

;; assuming that (side-effect) is a function that we want to call for each
;; and every value in the list, but whose return value we do not care about
=> (list-comp (do (side-effect x)
...               (if (< x 5) (* 2 x)
...                   (* 4 x)))
...           (x (range 10)))
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 20, 24, 28, 32, 36]

do can accept any number of arguments, from 1 to n.

def / setv

def and setv are used to bind a value, object, or function to a symbol. For example:

=> (def names ["Alice" "Bob" "Charlie"])
=> (print names)
[u'Alice', u'Bob', u'Charlie']

=> (setv counter (fn [collection item] (.count collection item)))
=> (counter [1 2 3 4 5 2 3] 2)
2

They can be used to assign multiple variables at once:

=> (setv a 1 b 2)
(1L, 2L)
=> a
1L
=> b
2L
=>

defclass

New classes are declared with defclass. It can takes two optional parameters: a vector defining a possible super classes and another vector containing attributes of the new class as two item vectors.

(defclass class-name [super-class-1 super-class-2]
  [attribute value]

  (defn method [self] (print "hello!")))

Both values and functions can be bound on the new class as shown by the example below:

=> (defclass Cat []
...  [age None
...   colour "white"]
...
...  (defn speak [self] (print "Meow")))

=> (def spot (Cat))
=> (setv spot.colour "Black")
'Black'
=> (.speak spot)
Meow

defn

defn macro is used to define functions. It takes three parameters: the name of the function to define, a vector of parameters, and the body of the function:

(defn name [params] body)

Parameters may have the following keywords in front of them:

&optional

Parameter is optional. The parameter can be given as a two item list, where the first element is parameter name and the second is the default value. The parameter can be also given as a single item, in which case the default value is None.

=> (defn total-value [value &optional [value-added-tax 10]]
...  (+ (/ (* value value-added-tax) 100) value))

=> (total-value 100)
110.0

=> (total-value 100 1)
101.0
&key

Parameter is a dict of keyword arguments. The keys of the dict specify the parameter names and the values give the default values of the parameters.

=> (defn key-parameters [&key {"a" 1 "b" 2}]
... (print "a is" a "and b is" b))
=> (key-parameters :a 1 :b 2)
a is 1 and b is 2
=> (key-parameters :b 1 :a 2)
a is 2 and b is 1

The following declarations are equivalent:

(defn key-parameters [&key {"a" 1 "b" 2}])

(defn key-parameters [&optional [a 1] [b 2]])
&kwargs

Parameter will contain 0 or more keyword arguments.

The following code examples defines a function that will print all keyword arguments and their values.

=> (defn print-parameters [&kwargs kwargs]
...    (for [(, k v) (.items kwargs)] (print k v)))

=> (print-parameters :parameter-1 1 :parameter-2 2)
parameter_1 1
parameter_2 2

; to avoid the mangling of '-' to '_', use apply:
=> (apply print-parameters [] {"parameter-1" 1 "parameter-2" 2})
parameter-1 1
parameter-2 2
&rest

Parameter will contain 0 or more positional arguments. No other positional arguments may be specified after this one.

The following code example defines a function that can be given 0 to n numerical parameters. It then sums every odd number and subtracts every even number.

=> (defn zig-zag-sum [&rest numbers]
     (setv odd-numbers (list-comp x [x numbers] (odd? x))
           even-numbers (list-comp x [x numbers] (even? x)))
     (- (sum odd-numbers) (sum even-numbers)))

=> (zig-zag-sum)
0
=> (zig-zag-sum 3 9 4)
8
=> (zig-zag-sum 1 2 3 4 5 6)
-3
&kwonly

New in version 0.12.0.

Parameters that can only be called as keywords. Mandatory keyword-only arguments are declared with the argument’s name; optional keyword-only arguments are declared as a two-element list containing the argument name followed by the default value (as with &optional above).

=> (defn compare [a b &kwonly keyfn [reverse false]]
...  (setv result (keyfn a b))
...  (if (not reverse)
...    result
...    (- result)))
=> (apply compare ["lisp" "python"]
...        {"keyfn" (fn [x y]
...                   (reduce - (map (fn [s] (ord (first s))) [x y])))})
-4
=> (apply compare ["lisp" "python"]
...        {"keyfn" (fn [x y]
...                   (reduce - (map (fn [s] (ord (first s))) [x y])))
...         "reverse" True})
4
=> (compare "lisp" "python")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: compare() missing 1 required keyword-only argument: 'keyfn'

Availability: Python 3.

defmain

New in version 0.10.1.

The defmain macro defines a main function that is immediately called with sys.argv as arguments if and only if this file is being executed as a script. In other words, this:

(defmain [&rest args]
  (do-something-with args))

is the equivalent of:

def main(*args):
    do_something_with(args)
    return 0

if __name__ == "__main__":
    import sys
    retval = main(*sys.argv)

    if isinstance(retval, int):
        sys.exit(retval)

Note that as you can see above, if you return an integer from this function, this will be used as the exit status for your script. (Python defaults to exit status 0 otherwise, which means everything’s okay!) Since (sys.exit 0) is not run explicitly in the case of a non-integer return from defmain, it’s a good idea to put (defmain) as the last piece of code in your file.

If you want fancy command-line arguments, you can use the standard Python module argparse in the usual way:

(import argparse)

(defmain [&rest _]
  (setv parser (argparse.ArgumentParser))
  (.add-argument parser "STRING"
    :help "string to replicate")
  (.add-argument parser "-n" :type int :default 3
    :help "number of copies")
  (setv args (parser.parse_args))

  (print (* args.STRING args.n))

  0)

defmacro

defmacro is used to define macros. The general format is (defmacro name [parameters] expr).

The following example defines a macro that can be used to swap order of elements in code, allowing the user to write code in infix notation, where operator is in between the operands.

=> (defmacro infix [code]
...  (quasiquote (
...    (unquote (get code 1))
...    (unquote (get code 0))
...    (unquote (get code 2)))))

=> (infix (1 + 1))
2

defmacro/g!

New in version 0.9.12.

defmacro/g! is a special version of defmacro that is used to automatically generate gensym for any symbol that starts with g!.

For example, g!a would become (gensym "a").

defmacro!

defmacro! is like defmacro/g! plus automatic once-only evaluation for o! parameters, which are available as the equivalent g! symbol.

For example,

=> (defn expensive-get-number [] (print "spam") 14)
=> (defmacro triple-1 [n] `(+ n n n))
=> (triple-1 (expensive-get-number))  ; evals n three times
spam
spam
spam
42
=> (defmacro/g! triple-2 [n] `(do (setv ~g!n ~n) (+ ~g!n ~g!n ~g!n)))
=> (triple-2 (expensive-get-number))  ; avoid repeats with a gensym
spam
42
=> (defmacro! triple-3 [o!n] `(+ ~g!n ~g!n ~g!n))
=> (triple-3 (expensive-get-number))  ; easier with defmacro!
spam
42

defreader

New in version 0.9.12.

defreader defines a reader macro, enabling you to restructure or modify syntax.

=> (defreader ^ [expr] (print expr))
=> #^(1 2 3 4)
(1 2 3 4)
=> #^"Hello"
"Hello"

See also

Section Reader Macros

del

New in version 0.9.12.

del removes an object from the current namespace.

=> (setv foo 42)
=> (del foo)
=> foo
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<console>", line 1, in <module>
NameError: name 'foo' is not defined

del can also remove objects from mappings, lists, and more.

=> (setv test (list (range 10)))
=> test
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
=> (del (cut test 2 4)) ;; remove items from 2 to 4 excluded
=> test
[0, 1, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]
=> (setv dic {"foo" "bar"})
=> dic
{"foo": "bar"}
=> (del (get dic "foo"))
=> dic
{}

doto

New in version 0.10.1.

doto is used to simplify a sequence of method calls to an object.

=> (doto [] (.append 1) (.append 2) .reverse)
[2 1]
=> (setv collection [])
=> (.append collection 1)
=> (.append collection 2)
=> (.reverse collection)
=> collection
[2 1]

eval

eval evaluates a quoted expression and returns the value. The optional second and third arguments specify the dictionary of globals to use and the module name. The globals dictionary defaults to (local) and the module name defaults to the name of the current module.

=> (eval '(print "Hello World"))
"Hello World"

If you want to evaluate a string, use read-str to convert it to a form first:

=> (eval (read-str "(+ 1 1)"))
2

eval-and-compile

eval-when-compile

first / car

first and car are macros for accessing the first element of a collection:

=> (first (range 10))
0

for

for is used to call a function for each element in a list or vector. The results of each call are discarded and the for expression returns None instead. The example code iterates over collection and for each element in collection calls the side-effect function with element as its argument:

;; assuming that (side-effect) is a function that takes a single parameter
(for [element collection] (side-effect element))

;; for can have an optional else block
(for [element collection] (side-effect element)
     (else (side-effect-2)))

The optional else block is only executed if the for loop terminates normally. If the execution is halted with break, the else block does not execute.

=> (for [element [1 2 3]] (if (< element 3)
...                             (print element)
...                             (break))
...    (else (print "loop finished")))
1
2

=> (for [element [1 2 3]] (if (< element 4)
...                             (print element)
...                             (break))
...    (else (print "loop finished")))
1
2
3
loop finished

genexpr

genexpr is used to create generator expressions. It takes two or three parameters. The first parameter is the expression controlling the return value, while the second is used to select items from a list. The third and optional parameter can be used to filter out some of the items in the list based on a conditional expression. genexpr is similar to list-comp, except it returns an iterable that evaluates values one by one instead of evaluating them immediately.

=> (def collection (range 10))
=> (def filtered (genexpr x [x collection] (even? x)))
=> (list filtered)
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

gensym

New in version 0.9.12.

gensym is used to generate a unique symbol that allows macros to be written without accidental variable name clashes.

=> (gensym)
u':G_1235'

=> (gensym "x")
u':x_1236'

get

get is used to access single elements in collections. get takes at least two parameters: the data structure and the index or key of the item. It will then return the corresponding value from the collection. If multiple index or key values are provided, they are used to access successive elements in a nested structure. Example usage:

=> (do
...  (setv animals {"dog" "bark" "cat" "meow"}
...        numbers (, "zero" "one" "two" "three")
...        nested [0 1 ["a" "b" "c"] 3 4])
...  (print (get animals "dog"))
...  (print (get numbers 2))
...  (print (get nested 2 1)))

bark
two
b

Note

get raises a KeyError if a dictionary is queried for a non-existing key.

Note

get raises an IndexError if a list or a tuple is queried for an index that is out of bounds.

global

global can be used to mark a symbol as global. This allows the programmer to assign a value to a global symbol. Reading a global symbol does not require the global keyword – only assigning it does.

The following example shows how the global symbol a is assigned a value in a function and is later on printed in another function. Without the global keyword, the second function would have raised a NameError.

(defn set-a [value]
  (global a)
  (setv a value))

(defn print-a []
  (print a))

(set-a 5)
(print-a)

if / if* / if-not

New in version 0.10.0: if-not

if / if* / if-not respect Python truthiness, that is, a test fails if it evaluates to a “zero” (including values of len zero, None, and False), and passes otherwise, but values with a __bool__ method (__nonzero__ in Python 2) can overrides this.

The if macro is for conditionally selecting an expression for evaluation. The result of the selected expression becomes the result of the entire if form. if can select a group of expressions with the help of a do block.

if takes any number of alternating test and then expressions, plus an optional else expression at the end, which defaults to None. if checks each test in turn, and selects the then corresponding to the first passed test. if does not evaluate any expressions following its selection, similar to the if/elif/else control structure from Python. If no tests pass, if selects else.

The if* special form is restricted to 2 or 3 arguments, but otherwise works exactly like if (which expands to nested if* forms), so there is generally no reason to use it directly.

if-not is similar to if* but the second expression will be executed when the condition fails while the third and final expression is executed when the test succeeds – the opposite order of if*. The final expression is again optional and defaults to None.

Example usage:

(print (if (< n 0.0) "negative"
           (= n 0.0) "zero"
           (> n 0.0) "positive"
           "not a number"))

(if* (money-left? account)
  (print "let's go shopping")
  (print "let's go and work"))

(if-not (money-left? account)
  (print "let's go and work")
  (print "let's go shopping"))

lif and lif-not

New in version 0.10.0.

New in version 0.11.0: lif-not

For those that prefer a more Lispy if clause, we have lif. This only considers None to be false! All other “false-ish” Python values are considered true. Conversely, we have lif-not in parallel to if and if-not which reverses the comparison.

=> (lif True "true" "false")
"true"
=> (lif False "true" "false")
"true"
=> (lif 0 "true" "false")
"true"
=> (lif None "true" "false")
"false"
=> (lif-not None "true" "false")
"true"
=> (lif-not False "true" "false")
"false"

import

import is used to import modules, like in Python. There are several ways that import can be used.

;; Imports each of these modules
;;
;; Python:
;; import sys
;; import os.path
(import sys os.path)

;; Import from a module
;;
;; Python: from os.path import exists, isdir, isfile
(import [os.path [exists isdir isfile]])

;; Import with an alias
;;
;; Python: import sys as systest
(import [sys :as systest])

;; You can list as many imports as you like of different types.
;;
;; Python:
;; from tests.resources import kwtest, function_with_a_dash
;; from os.path import exists, isdir as is_dir, isfile as is_file
;; import sys as systest
(import [tests.resources [kwtest function-with-a-dash]]
        [os.path [exists
                  isdir :as dir?
                  isfile :as file?]]
        [sys :as systest])

;; Import all module functions into current namespace
;;
;; Python: from sys import *
(import [sys [*]])

fn

fn, like Python’s lambda, can be used to define an anonymous function. Unlike Python’s lambda, the body of the function can comprise several statements. The parameters are similar to defn: the first parameter is vector of parameters and the rest is the body of the function. fn returns a new function. In the following example, an anonymous function is defined and passed to another function for filtering output.

=> (def people [{:name "Alice" :age 20}
...             {:name "Bob" :age 25}
...             {:name "Charlie" :age 50}
...             {:name "Dave" :age 5}])

=> (defn display-people [people filter]
...  (for [person people] (if (filter person) (print (:name person)))))

=> (display-people people (fn [person] (< (:age person) 25)))
Alice
Dave

Just as in normal function definitions, if the first element of the body is a string, it serves as a docstring. This is useful for giving class methods docstrings.

=> (setv times-three
...   (fn [x]
...    "Multiplies input by three and returns the result."
...    (* x 3)))

This can be confirmed via Python’s built-in help function:

=> (help times-three)
Help on function times_three:

times_three(x)
Multiplies input by three and returns result
(END)

last

New in version 0.11.0.

last can be used for accessing the last element of a collection:

=> (last [2 4 6])
6

list-comp

list-comp performs list comprehensions. It takes two or three parameters. The first parameter is the expression controlling the return value, while the second is used to select items from a list. The third and optional parameter can be used to filter out some of the items in the list based on a conditional expression. Some examples:

=> (def collection (range 10))
=> (list-comp x [x collection])
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

=> (list-comp (* x 2) [x collection])
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18]

=> (list-comp (* x 2) [x collection] (< x 5))
[0, 2, 4, 6, 8]

nonlocal

New in version 0.11.1.

PYTHON 3.0 AND UP ONLY!

nonlocal can be used to mark a symbol as not local to the current scope. The parameters are the names of symbols to mark as nonlocal. This is necessary to modify variables through nested fn scopes:

(defn some-function []
  (setv x 0)
  (register-some-callback
    (fn [stuff]
      (nonlocal x)
      (setv x stuff))))

Without the call to (nonlocal x), the inner function would redefine x to stuff inside its local scope instead of overwriting the x in the outer function.

See PEP3104 for further information.

not

not is used in logical expressions. It takes a single parameter and returns a reversed truth value. If True is given as a parameter, False will be returned, and vice-versa. Example usage:

=> (not True)
False

=> (not False)
True

=> (not None)
True

or

or is used in logical expressions. It takes at least two parameters. It will return the first non-false parameter. If no such value exists, the last parameter will be returned.

=> (or True False)
True

=> (and False False)
False

=> (and False 1 True False)
1

Note

or short-circuits and stops evaluating parameters as soon as the first true value is encountered.

=> (or True (print "hello"))
True

print

print is used to output on screen. Example usage:

(print "Hello world!")

Note

print always returns None.

quasiquote

quasiquote allows you to quote a form, but also selectively evaluate expressions. Expressions inside a quasiquote can be selectively evaluated using unquote (~). The evaluated form can also be spliced using unquote-splice (~@). Quasiquote can be also written using the backquote (`) symbol.

;; let `qux' be a variable with value (bar baz)
`(foo ~qux)
; equivalent to '(foo (bar baz))
`(foo ~@qux)
; equivalent to '(foo bar baz)

quote

quote returns the form passed to it without evaluating it. quote can alternatively be written using the apostrophe (') symbol.

=> (setv x '(print "Hello World"))
; variable x is set to expression & not evaluated
=> x
(u'print' u'Hello World')
=> (eval x)
Hello World

require

require is used to import macros from one or more given modules. It allows parameters in all the same formats as import. The require form itself produces no code in the final program: its effect is purely at compile-time, for the benefit of macro expansion. Specifically, require imports each named module and then makes each requested macro available in the current module.

The following are all equivalent ways to call a macro named foo in the module mymodule:

(require mymodule)
(mymodule.foo 1)

(require [mymodule :as M])
(M.foo 1)

(require [mymodule [foo]])
(foo 1)

(require [mymodule [*]])
(foo 1)

(require [mymodule [foo :as bar]])
(bar 1)

Macros that call macros

One aspect of require that may be surprising is what happens when one macro’s expansion calls another macro. Suppose mymodule.hy looks like this:

(defmacro repexpr [n expr]
  ; Evaluate the expression n times
  ; and collect the results in a list.
  `(list (map (fn [_] ~expr) (range ~n))))

(defmacro foo [n]
  `(repexpr ~n (input "Gimme some input: ")))

And then, in your main program, you write:

(require [mymodule [foo]])

(print (mymodule.foo 3))

Running this raises NameError: name 'repexpr' is not defined, even though writing (print (foo 3)) in mymodule works fine. The trouble is that your main program doesn’t have the macro repexpr available, since it wasn’t imported (and imported under exactly that name, as opposed to a qualified name). You could do (require [mymodule [*]]) or (require [mymodule [foo repexpr]]), but a less error-prone approach is to change the definition of foo to require whatever sub-macros it needs:

(defmacro foo [n]
  `(do
    (require mymodule)
    (mymodule.repexpr ~n (raw-input "Gimme some input: "))))

It’s wise to use (require mymodule) here rather than (require [mymodule [repexpr]]) to avoid accidentally shadowing a function named repexpr in the main program.

Qualified macro names

Note that in the current implementation, there’s a trick in qualified macro names, like mymodule.foo and M.foo in the above example. These names aren’t actually attributes of module objects; they’re just identifiers with periods in them. In fact, mymodule and M aren’t defined by these require forms, even at compile-time. None of this will hurt you unless try to do introspection of the current module’s set of defined macros, which isn’t really supported anyway.

rest / cdr

rest and cdr return the collection passed as an argument without the first element:

=> (rest (range 10))
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

set-comp

set-comp is used to create sets. It takes two or three parameters. The first parameter is for controlling the return value, while the second is used to select items from a sequence. The third and optional parameter can be used to filter out some of the items in the sequence based on a conditional expression.

=> (setv data [1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 3 4 5])
=> (set-comp x [x data] (odd? x))
{1, 3, 5}

cut

cut can be used to take a subset of a list and create a new list from it. The form takes at least one parameter specifying the list to cut. Two optional parameters can be used to give the start and end position of the subset. If they are not supplied, the default value of None will be used instead. The third optional parameter is used to control step between the elements.

cut follows the same rules as its Python counterpart. Negative indices are counted starting from the end of the list. Some example usage:

=> (def collection (range 10))

=> (cut collection)
[0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

=> (cut collection 5)
[5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

=> (cut collection 2 8)
[2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

=> (cut collection 2 8 2)
[2, 4, 6]

=> (cut collection -4 -2)
[6, 7]

raise

The raise form can be used to raise an Exception at runtime. Example usage:

(raise)
; re-rase the last exception

(raise IOError)
; raise an IOError

(raise (IOError "foobar"))
; raise an IOError("foobar")

raise can accept a single argument (an Exception class or instance) or no arguments to re-raise the last Exception.

try

The try form is used to start a try / except block. The form is used as follows:

(try
    (error-prone-function)
    (except [e ZeroDivisionError] (print "Division by zero"))
    (else (print "no errors"))
    (finally (print "all done")))

try must contain at least one except block, and may optionally include an else or finally block. If an error is raised with a matching except block during the execution of error-prone-function, that except block will be executed. If no errors are raised, the else block is executed. The finally block will be executed last regardless of whether or not an error was raised.

unless

The unless macro is a shorthand for writing an if statement that checks if the given conditional is False. The following shows the expansion of this macro.

(unless conditional statement)

(if conditional
  None
  (do statement))

unquote

Within a quasiquoted form, unquote forces evaluation of a symbol. unquote is aliased to the tilde (~) symbol.

(def name "Cuddles")
(quasiquote (= name (unquote name)))
;=> (u'=' u'name' u'Cuddles')

`(= name ~name)
;=> (u'=' u'name' u'Cuddles')

unquote-splice

unquote-splice forces the evaluation of a symbol within a quasiquoted form, much like unquote. unquote-splice can only be used when the symbol being unquoted contains an iterable value, as it “splices” that iterable into the quasiquoted form. unquote-splice is aliased to the ~@ symbol.

(def nums [1 2 3 4])
(quasiquote (+ (unquote-splice nums)))
;=> (u'+' 1L 2L 3L 4L)

`(+ ~@nums)
;=> (u'+' 1L 2L 3L 4L)

when

when is similar to unless, except it tests when the given conditional is True. It is not possible to have an else block in a when macro. The following shows the expansion of the macro.

(when conditional statement)

(if conditional (do statement))

while

while is used to execute one or more blocks as long as a condition is met. The following example will output “Hello world!” to the screen indefinitely:

(while True (print "Hello world!"))

with

with is used to wrap the execution of a block within a context manager. The context manager can then set up the local system and tear it down in a controlled manner. The archetypical example of using with is when processing files. with can bind context to an argument or ignore it completely, as shown below:

(with [arg (expr)] block)

(with [(expr)] block)

(with [arg (expr) (expr)] block)

The following example will open the NEWS file and print its content to the screen. The file is automatically closed after it has been processed.

(with [f (open "NEWS")] (print (.read f)))

with-decorator

with-decorator is used to wrap a function with another. The function performing the decoration should accept a single value: the function being decorated, and return a new function. with-decorator takes a minimum of two parameters: the function performing decoration and the function being decorated. More than one decorator function can be applied; they will be applied in order from outermost to innermost, ie. the first decorator will be the outermost one, and so on. Decorators with arguments are called just like a function call.

(with-decorator decorator-fun
   (defn some-function [] ...)

(with-decorator decorator1 decorator2 ...
   (defn some-function [] ...)

(with-decorator (decorator arg) ..
   (defn some-function [] ...)

In the following example, inc-decorator is used to decorate the function addition with a function that takes two parameters and calls the decorated function with values that are incremented by 1. When the decorated addition is called with values 1 and 1, the end result will be 4 (1+1 + 1+1).

=> (defn inc-decorator [func]
...  (fn [value-1 value-2] (func (+ value-1 1) (+ value-2 1))))
=> (defn inc2-decorator [func]
...  (fn [value-1 value-2] (func (+ value-1 2) (+ value-2 2))))

=> (with-decorator inc-decorator (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
4
=> (with-decorator inc2-decorator inc-decorator
...  (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
8

In addition to defn forms, with-decorator can be used with defclass and setv forms. In the latter case, the generated Python code uses an ordinary function call rather than decorator syntax.

#@

New in version 0.12.0.

The reader macro #@ can be used as a shorthand for with-decorator. With #@, the previous example becomes:

=> #@(inc-decorator (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
4
=> #@(inc2-decorator inc-decorator
...   (defn addition [a b] (+ a b)))
=> (addition 1 1)
8

with-gensyms

New in version 0.9.12.

with-gensym is used to generate a set of gensym for use in a macro. The following code:

(with-gensyms [a b c]
  ...)

expands to:

(do
  (setv a (gensym)
        b (gensym)
        c (gensym))
  ...)

xor

New in version 0.12.0.

xor performs the logical operation of exclusive OR. It takes two arguments. If exactly one argument is true, that argument is returned. If neither is true, the second argument is returned (which will necessarily be false). Otherwise, when both arguments are true, the value False is returned.

=> [(xor 0 0) (xor 0 1) (xor 1 0) (xor 1 1)]
[0, 1, 1, False]

yield

yield is used to create a generator object that returns one or more values. The generator is iterable and therefore can be used in loops, list comprehensions and other similar constructs.

The function random-numbers shows how generators can be used to generate infinite series without consuming infinite amount of memory.

=> (defn multiply [bases coefficients]
...  (for [(, base coefficient) (zip bases coefficients)]
...   (yield (* base coefficient))))

=> (multiply (range 5) (range 5))
<generator object multiply at 0x978d8ec>

=> (list-comp value [value (multiply (range 10) (range 10))])
[0, 1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81]

=> (import random)
=> (defn random-numbers [low high]
...  (while True (yield (.randint random low high))))
=> (list-comp x [x (take 15 (random-numbers 1 50))])
[7, 41, 6, 22, 32, 17, 5, 38, 18, 38, 17, 14, 23, 23, 19]

yield-from

New in version 0.9.13.

PYTHON 3.3 AND UP ONLY!

yield-from is used to call a subgenerator. This is useful if you want your coroutine to be able to delegate its processes to another coroutine, say, if using something fancy like asyncio.